1. A set of rules and formats, semantic and syntactic, permitting information systems to exchange information. (NIST Glossary of Information Security Terms – NISTIR 7298 – Revision 2).

Source: NSTAC Report to the President on a Cybersecurity Moonshot, National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC),

2. An agreed upon format for transmitting data between devices.

3. A plan for carrying out a formal or scientific study. Voting system tests are often called protocols.

Source: Information Technology Terminology, U.S. Election Assistance Commission,

4. A set of rules to implement and control some type of association between systems.

Source: U.S. Cyberspace Solarium Commission, March 2020,

5. A set of formal rules describing how to transmit data, especially across a network.

Source: Independent Panel on Internet Voting, British Columbia,