1. Compiling the results from an election for the purpose of validating and officially certifying the results. Canvassing may include counting of ballots as well as review of the statements of the vote prepared by poll workers and of results tapes printed from DREs (Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) voting machines) and optical scanners.

Source: COUNTING VOTES 2012: A State by State Look at Voting Technology Preparedness, Verified Voting Foundation, Rutgers School of Law - Newark Constitutional Litigation Clinic & Common Cause Education Fund,

2. This is the process of reviewing votes by precinct, resolving problem votes, and counting all types of votes (including absentee and provisional votes) for each candidate and issue on the ballot and producing an official total for each.

Source: ELECTIONS: The Nation’s Evolving Election System as Reflected in the November 2004 General Election, U.S. Government Accountability Office,