1. Testing of a voting system performed by a testing authority [such as the EAC (US Election Assistance Commission) or a state] to ensure that the system meets the requirements defined in the standards being tested against in the manner specified in its product documentation.
Source: Election Terminology Glossary - Draft, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), https://pages.nist.gov/ElectionGlossary/
2. Testing performed under either national or state certification processes to verify voting system conformance to requirements.
Source: Glossary of terms database, U.S. Election Assistance Commission, https://www.eac.gov/glossary/
3. Certification testing validates the compliance of the voting equipment with federal standards or state-specific requirements prior to (or as a condition of) system acceptance. Under NASED, national testing was called qualification testing.
Source: ELECTIONS: The Nation’s Evolving Election System as Reflected in the November 2004 General Election, U.S. Government Accountability Office, https://www.gao.gov/assets/160/157713.pdf