1. Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in an information system. Audit trails may include event logs, paper records, error messages, and reports.

Source: Election Terminology Glossary - Draft, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),

2. The process of identifying a user, usually by means of a username and password combination. Election systems use authentication methods to assure that only those users with appropriate authority are permitted access to the system. Authentication schemes should not permit group logins.

Source: Glossary - Introduction to Information Technology for Election Officials U.S. Election Assistance Commission

3. The process of verifying the identity or other attributes of an entity (user, process, or device).

Source: Explore Terms: A Glossary of Common Cybersecurity Terminology, National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies (NICCS),; The Cyber Glossary, National Security Archive, George Washington University,

4. The process whereby a user, information source, or simply information proves they are who they claim to be; the process of determining the identity of a user attempting to access a network and/or computer system. (Newton’s Telecom Dictionary)

Source: NSTAC Report to the President on a Cybersecurity Moonshot, National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC),

5. The process of identifying an individual as an eligible voter (may include confirming whether or not an individual has previously voted in the same election).

Source: Independent Independent Panel on Internet Voting British Columbia,