1. The process of granting or denying specific requests to : (1) obtain and use information and related information processing services; and (2) enter specific physical facilities.
Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Election Terminology Glossary - Draft National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) https://pages.nist.gov/ElectionGlossary/; The State and Local Election Cybersecurity Playbook, Defending Digital Democracy Project, Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/files/publication/StateLocalPlaybook%201.1.pdf; The Cyber Glossary, National Security Archive, George Washington University, https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/news/cyber-vault/2018-09-19/cyber-glossary
2. Method by which access to specific data, procedures, and other resources is restricted or controlled. The most common access control is a username/password combination election officials must control access to resources within the scope of the election systems they supervise. A typical criteria is “need to know,” implying that election workers only have access to appropriate data and resources within the scope of their responsibility.
Source: Glossary - Introduction to Information Technology for Election Officials Glossary - Introduction to Information Technology for Election Officials U.S. Election Assistance Commission https://www.eac.gov/assets/1/28/Glossary_IT-Terms_Managing_Election_Technology.pdf
3. Because unrestricted physical access to components of a voting system raises the possibility of tampering, it is important for such access to be controlled and logged. Requirements that address voting system capabilities to limit and detect access to critical voting system components in order to guard against loss of system and data integrity, availability, confidentiality, and accountability in voting systems form part of the security coverage of the 2007 VVSG.
Source: Electronic Voting Glossary Electronic Voting Glossary, Michael I. Shamos, https://collaborate.nist.gov/voting/pub/Voting/Glossary/Shamos-Election-Glossary.pdf